Selected clinical publications

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NOVA Technologies - Publications

Finapres® Publications

In the past 30 years, more than 2,500 peer-reviewed papers have been published about Finapres® devices! The most popular keywords are Finapres ® , Finometer ®,  Modelflow ® , and Portapres ®


TOP 5 Reasons why researchers choose the Finapres® NOVA :

  1. Well-validated non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring
  2. Re-usable finger cuffs
  3. More than 50 cardiovascular parameters available
  4. Analog I / O module to import and export analog signals
  5. Various data export options, beat-to-beat, and raw data exports!


And since Finapres devices are being used by so many research institutes worldwide, it is much easier to compare your data and efficiently collaborate with other universities and research institutes, for example in multi-center clinical trials!


Researchers worldwide use the Finapres® NOVA  for Hemodynamic Monitoring

Finapres® clinical papers

The following clinical publications were very important for Finapres® technology development, software development, and its validation in various application fields. Altogether, these papers form the scientific foundation of all Finapres® products! 

Finapres® technology

The volume-clamp method for non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements was first introduced in 1973 by the Czech physiologist Prof. Dr. J Peňáz. He demonstrated that it is possible to perform continuous measurements of finger arterial pressure by using a finger cuff! All Finapres® devices include a calibration algorithm called Physiocal . This algorithm prevents drifts in the measured finger pressure due to arterial contractions and relaxations, related to smooth muscle activity in the finger arteries. The development and validation of the Physiocal algorithm has been widely described in the peer-reviewed literature (Wesseling 1995, Imholz et al. 1998, Langewouters et al. 1998). Additionaly, Guelen et al. (2008) showed that generalized waveform filtering and level correction enables a reliable conversion from finger artery pressure waveform to the brachial arterial pressure in 37 cardiac patients. The blood pressure signal of the Finapres® NOVA with NANO CORE® technology meets accuracy requirements of ISO 81060-2: 2013 standards, with the radial artery as used reference site.

Finapres® NOVA technology: accurate continuous non-invasive blood pressure measurements!


Scientific papers describing the Finapres® technology

Finapres® NOVA applications

The Finapres® NOVA is an innovative hemodynamic monitoring system, which provides accurate non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurements using just a finger cuff. This facilitates several applications, such as autonomic failure diagnosishemodynamic evaluation , physiology education , sleep disorder research, and exercise testing ! 


In 1988, Imholz et al. Already demonstrated that the Finapres® device is able to reliably monitor the beat-to-beat blood pressure response during the Valsalva maneuver in 15 subjects. This makes the Finapres® device a reliable alternative to intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring! Many other papers describe the value of continuous blood pressure monitoring with Finapres® during tilt table testing, the active stand test, sleep monitoring, etc. etc.

The Finapres® GAT application provides patient instructions and continuous BP & HR monitoring during the Valsalva maneuver


Check the various scientific papers available  about various Finapres® NOVA applications !




Finapres® NOVA monitor for continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring


Finapres® Guided Autonomic Testing software application

In autonomic testing, standardized procedures are essential for reliable test results. Finapres Medical Systems developed a Guided Autonomic Testing (GAT) Application  as part of the Finapres® NOVA, which guides the operator and the patient through a series of autonomic test maneuvers. The GAT application facilitates the Valsalva test, Tilt Table test, Deep Breathing test, Stand test, Cold Pressor test, Carotid Sinus Massage test, and Drugs Administration test.


The GAT application is based on various scientific papers and guidelines about autonomic function testing 





Finapres® Advanced Hemodynamics (HD) software application

The Advanced Hemodynamics (HD) software application enables relevant hemodynamic parameters on the Finapres® NOVA. This HD application gives more insight into various cardiovascular parameters, supporting health care professionals and researchers in studying and diagnosing their patients. It uses a statistical model of the human circulation to calculate the hemodynamic parameters from the finger arterial pressure waveform. This algorithm computes the aortic flow waveform by simulating a non-linear three-element model of aortic input impedance, as described by Wesseling et al. In 1993 .The aortic impedance is modeled based on the age, length, weight and gender of the patient, while the systemic vascular resistance is predicted from the mean pressure and model mean flow. This so-called Modelflow® algorithm is widely validated, for instance by Harms et al. (1999), Jansen et al. (2001), Leonetti et al. (2004) and Bogert et al. (2005).

Modelflow®: The development and validation of the Finapres® algorithm for hemodynamic parameters !



Finapres ® HD software provides several hemodynamic parameters, including Cardiac Output (CO) and Stroke Volume (SV)


Finapres® Autonomic Testing (AT) software application

The Autonomic Testing (AT) software application enables various Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters on the Finapres® NOVA with ECG module . These parameters can aid the physician to obtain detailed insights into the dynamics of sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the human cardiovascular system.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is the fluctuation in time intervals between adjacent heartbeats. Our HRV parameters are derived from the ECG signal, obtained in time- and frequency domain, and based on a 5-minute interval. Subsequently, the HRV signals are updated every heartbeat. A filter is applied to detect and remove abnormal beats. The method to calculate the HRV parameters is based on the HRV Guidelines (Camm et al. 1996) , published by the European Heart Journal.



The Finapres ® AT software provides various HRV parameters, obtained with the Finapres NOVA + ECG


Finapres® baroreceptor sensitivity (xBRS)

Both the HD application and the AT application provide the  Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) parameter. This parameter describes the amount of response in heartbeat interval to a change in blood pressure, expressed in ms / mmHg. The BRS is obtained from the systolic blood pressure signal and derived using a well-validated cross-correlation method, published by Westerhof et al. (2004). This so-called xBRS method calculates the correlation between beat-to-beat blood pressure and delayed pulse intervals. The measurement of the baroreflex is a source of valuable information in the clinical management of cardiac disease patients, particularly in risk stratification (La Rovere et al., 2008).

Calculation and validation of Finapres ®  xBRS parameter!


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